Broadly speaking, the UK has (and has always had) two separate school systems: one for England, Wales and Northern Ireland and one for Scotland. As a result, two separate sets of exam boards have developed.
England, Wales and Northern Ireland
Unusually, England, Wales and Northern Ireland have several exam boards, with schools and colleges able to freely choose between them on a subject-by-subject basis. Currently, there are six exam boards available to state schools:
- AQA (Assessment and Qualifications Alliance)
- CIE (University of Cambridge International Examinations)
- CCEA (Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment)
- OCR (Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations)
- WJEC (Welsh Joint Education Committee)
There is just one exam board in Scotland, the SQA (Scottish Qualifications Authority), which offers all Scotland's qualifications.
Examination boards working together
The UK's examination boards sometimes work together. For example, they sometimes offer qualifications jointly or share training materials for common parts of specifications.
The JCQ (Joint Council for Qualifications) is a common voice for UK exam boards. The JCQ is made up of AQA, CCEA, City & Guilds, Edexcel, OCR, SQA and WJEC. Among its roles, it devises standard rules for exams and publishes statistics.